The Duke Criteria for endocarditis diagnosis.

The Duke criteria are the current accepted diagnostic criteria for diagnosing endocarditis, with high sensitivity and specificity.

They are endorsed by most major societies, including AHA and ESC.

Below are links to the two most pivotal articles in the development of the Duke criteria.

Durack et al

Li et al

The most current endorsed version of the Duke criteria are available in the AHA guidelines, via AHA journal webpage link below, pages 1438 and 1439.

AHA Guidelines


Experimental Predictive Criteria

Apart from the Duke criteria, there are multiple other experimental criteria in localised use, designed for particular pathogens (eg. HANDOC for Non-B-haemolytic steptococcal bacteraemia). These other criteria are not currently endorsed by any major society and are currently for research use only.

Some examples are posted below.

The reason for posting these is to encourage research into refining diagnostic and management guidelines/algorithms based on pathogen identification.

ieQ takes no responsibility for clinicians using these criteria below in clinical practice.


Sunnerhagen et al


Bouza et al


Berge, Krantz et al

all above scoring systems for streptococcal bacteraemias

Berge, Kronberg et al


Palraj et al


Tubiana et al